Morocco, officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is the most northwestern country in the region of North Africa. It is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the west and has land borders with Algeria to the east and the disputed territory of Western Sahara to the south.
Morocco also claims the Spanish enclaves of Ceuta, Melilla and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, and several small islands under Spanish control off its coast. It covers an area of almost 446,550 km2 (172,410 square miles) or 710,850 km2 (274,460 square miles), with a population of approximately 36.8 million. Its official and dominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber; the Moroccan dialect (Drija) of Arabic and French is the main foreign language. Moroccan identity and culture is a vibrant blend of Arab, Berber and European cultures. Rabat is the capital, while its largest city is Casablanca.
The Alawite dynasty, which rules the country to this day, seized power in 1631 and over the next two centuries developed diplomatic and trade relations with the Western world. Morocco’s strategic location near the mouth of the Mediterranean has aroused renewed European interest; in 1912, France and Spain divide the country into respective protectorates, reserving an international zone in Tangier. Following riots and intermittent revolts against colonial rule, in 1956, Morocco regained its independence and reunified.
Since independence, Morocco has remained almost stable and prosperous. It has the fifth-largest economy in Africa. It exerts a significant influence both in Africa and in the Arab world; it is considered a middle power in world affairs and is a member of the Union for the Mediterranean, the African Union and the Arab League, Morocco is a semi-constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament.
Executive power is headed by the King of Morocco and the Prime Minister, while legislative power is exercised by the two chambers of parliament: the House of Representatives and the House of Advisors.
Judicial power is exercised by the Constitutional Court, which can review the validity of laws, elections and referendums. The king has extensive legislative and executive powers, especially military power, religious and foreign matters; he can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law, and can also dissolve the parliament after consultation with the prime minister and the president of the constitutional court.
Morocco claims ownership of the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, which it has designated as its southern provinces. In 1975, after Spain agreed to decolonize the territory and cede control to Morocco and Mauritania, a guerrilla war broke out between these powers and some of the local inhabitants. In 1979, Mauritania gave up its claims to the region, but the war continued to rage.
In 1991, an agreement ceasefire was reached, but the question of self-determination remains unresolved. Today, Morocco occupies three-fourths of the territory and efforts to resolve the dispute have so far failed to break the political impasse.
Geography of Morocco
The main geographical regions of Morocco are
the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea, the Rif Mountains, the Atlantic coast, the Atlas mountain ranges and the Sahara.
The western of the five Maghreb countries borders as it shows on the map, is the Strait of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean Sea to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and Algeria to the east.
Along the border with Algeria, in the south-eastern part of the country and the southern region. The landscape is distinguished by the edges of the Sahara, the largest desert in the world. The area includes the Tafilalt in the Eastern Anti-Atlas and the Draa River basin.
The coasts of Morocco
The Atlantic coast of Morocco is a flat coastline, barely cut, with significant sand transport and therefore not very suitable for ports.
Although, some of the most well-known cities are located on the coast of the Moroccan Atlantic lowlands, such as Tangier, the capital Rabat, Casablanca and Agadir.
The Mountains of Morocco
Morocco is largely mountainous. The northern part is dominated by the Rif mountains, a rich geographic and cultural region inhabited by the Berbers (Rif) since prehistoric times. South-East of the Rif Mountains extends the Middle Atlas, a mountainous region where snow-capped peaks reach over 2,000 meters.
In the centre of the country are the highest peaks of Morocco. They belong to the high mountains of the High Atlas, which are part of the Atlas Mountains, a vast mountain range that stretches across northwestern Africa, from Tunisia to the Atlantic coast of Morocco.
The High Atlas is the highest peak in the country, Mount Toubkal at 4,165 m. The mountain is part of Toubkal National Park, the country’s first national park, created in 1942.
Further southwest of the High Atlas is the Anti-Atlas, a mountain range stretching from Ouarzazate, a town known as “the door to the desert” in the northeast, to the Atlantic Ocean in the northeast. South. Where is?
Rivers in Morocco
Morocco’s river network is the most extensive in North Africa. The main rivers are the Moulouya River, which falls into the Mediterranean Sea near Saïdia, and the Sebou River. The largest river in North Africa by volume is crucial for irrigation in one of Morocco’s most productive regions, the Gharb basin. Draa River in the south is the longest river in Morocco, about 1,100 km; the Draa valley is known as the date basket of Morocco.
Morocco Cities And Airports
Northern Morocco is full of authenticity, with whitewashed Moorish buildings, desolate beaches, and fields of cannabis. While northern Morocco seems to be a little “behind” on some of the most popular tourist destinations in the south, it is slowly gaining ground while preserving its traditions, history,, and culture.
Fes (or Fez) is located in the central and northern region of Morocco, but not along the coast, and is the oldest imperial city in the country. You can read and watch our video of Fez on our guides for initiated travellers.
Tangier is another popular city in the northern region of Morocco. It has always been one of the most intriguing and exotic regions of Morocco, but it has changed over the past decade. Although it has a charming coast, Tangier is a city in transition and is in the process of redefining itself.
Chefchaouen is located between Fez and Tangier in the Rif Mountains. You will find Chefchaouen (also known as Chaouen), a beautiful town surrounded by the Rif Mountains. Although the area is a “dry” town, which means no alcohol is allowed, it is known for its kif (marijuana).because the cannabis fields cover the hills outside the town. Marijuana consumption is illegal in Morocco, but its export continues to increase.
Marrakech is considered a must for the first visit to Morocco. Located at the foot of the Atlas Mountains, it is a hopping (and trendy) tourist hotspot.
Casablanca is the largest and most populous city in the country. The city of Casablanca has a flourishing commercial and economic heart and the Bouskoura. the forest is the only attraction linked to the nature of the city. Casablanca is home to Mohammed V International Airport, the busiest airport in the country.
Morocco Natural Resources
Morocco has important deposits of phosphate (from Western Sahara) about 75% of the world’s known phosphate reserves), iron, lead, silver, barEnvironmental problemsEnvironmental problemsite, copper, manganese, fluorine, bentonite, salt, cobalt, zinc, gold and rare earth.
Morocco is likely to earthquakes; northern Morocco is close to the border between the African and Eurasian plates, where the African plate is subducted under the Eurasian plate. The other dangers Morocco’s faces are floods and drought.
The main problem of the country is desertification; more than 90% of Moroccan territory is more or less deserted. Land degradation is mainly due to anthropogenic (human-made) influences and is accelerated by climate change and prolonged droughts. Bush fires, overgrazing and deforestation are among the perceived causes of desertification in the country.